An American Legend-One Of The Most Well-Known Conmen Was From Newnan, Georgia


It was 9 p. m. and the sun was still shining brightly so it had to be Alaska. In fact, it was Skagway, District of Alaska and it was 1898, the year American legend, Soapy Smith, was to meet his maker. It’s believed he was shot on the streets of Skagway by a little Irishman by the name of Jesse Murphy.

Soapy Smith, really? I often wonder where some of these characters acquire their nicknames. I have a nickname that I acquired many years ago while I was attending college. It came about when my nephew was baptized and I had to wear a suit and tie. I don’t recall where I got the suit. I just got out of the army and I do recall owning a set of fatigues and army jacket, that I forgot to turn in to Uncle Sam before I ETS’d out of Fort Lewis, Washington. I also remember owning a pair of blue jeans, bell bottoms, and a red, white and blue sear sucker pair of pants that my wife taunts me about to this day. But I know I did own a suit because ancient pictures confirm it. After my nephew’s baptism, I left to frequent a local watering hole and interact with a thousand of my closest friends. When I walked through the door one of them yelled out, “Look, the Baron!” That sobriquet sticks with me to this day, although, Max Fly, that ubiquitous gadfly is quickly taking its place.

Soapy Smith was one of the most well-known conmen of the 1800’s. He was born Jefferson Randolph Smith, II, in Newnan, Georgia in 1860. He came from a family of college-educated professionals but the Civil War forced him to find a way to support himself and his young brother and sisters by selling cheap watches and jewelry on the street.

While selling these cheap watches he learned to enhance the quality of his junk through his persuasive Southern manner and moved people to make a purchase. Selling exposed him to slight of hand shell games and his superior dexterity took him to state fairs and street corners throughout the West. 

He traveled from New York to Chicago to New Orleans as well as Houston and Mexico before he landed in Denver, Colorado where he lived for 17 years. In Denver, he owned gambling clubs, auction halls, and street businesses most of them on the shady side of the law. His most famous being the Tivoli Saloon and Gambling Hall. Above it was a sign that read “Caveat Emptor,” which means “Let the Buyer Beware” in Latin. He left Denver after a newspaper editor listed his wife’s name alongside his in alleged criminal activity. Soapy sent his wife and child away before he beat the offending newspaper editor with a cane. He then traveled to San Francisco and Spokane before heading North to Juneau and finally settling in Skagway in 1897.

So, again, where did he acquire the nickname Soapy? Evidently from the scam he carried out selling miracle soaps containing a prized currency ranging in value from $1.00 to $100.00, concealed beneath its wrapper. Of course, only his co-conspirators got the bars with the bills in the package. This scam not only brought him great wealth but fame as well. So, in 1884 while in Denver, he acquired the moniker Soapy and when he was arrested, the arresting officer couldn’t remember his first name for the arrest ledger, so he wrote “Soapy” instead. This appellation stayed with him to his dying day and beyond.

Try Getting a Concealed Carry Permit For This Gun

Punt Gun
Punt Gun

Before we had the debate over banning the AR-15, we had the Punt Gun. The what? Try sneaking that past Homeland Security.

The Punt Gun could be 11’ long and weigh in excess of 250 pounds and discharged over a pound of shot and was capable of killing from fifty to one hundred birds at a time. The reason I say could be 11’ long is because no gun manufacturer wanted to make one. So most were crude sturdy hand-built muzzle loaders fired with percussion caps.

In the 1800’s, the market for fowl along with bird feathers(see the extinction of Florida’s egrets by Plumage hunters) used in the manufacture of lady’s stylish hats, made it very lucrative for hunters to bag as many birds as they could. To meet the demand, enterprising hunter’s developed extremely large bore, the diameter of the barrel, shotguns, some as large as 2” in diameter. They would mount them on a punt boat(thus, the name Punt Gun), also known as a small skiff, or sneaker boat, and head out to the lake to find some ducks or geese. They would aim the Punt Gun in the general direction of a flock of birds and pull the trigger. The guns were so powerful and the recoil generated so much force, that it would push the boats backward across the lake. They would then spend the rest of the day picking up the dead birds. To increase their efficiency, the hunters would ban together in groups of 6-10 boats so they could end up bagging over 500 birds in a day each with a single shot.

And to the surprise of many I’m sure, this practice of hunting with a Punt Gun depleted stocks of waterfowl. Thankfully, by the 1860’s most states banned the practice otherwise the only fowl or foul, we would see today would be at a baseball or basketball game.

In 1900, the Lacey Act was passed. This banned the transport of wild game across state lines, and the practice of market hunting was outlawed by a series of federal laws in 1918. By the mid-1900’s most states had banned the use of the Punt Gun, much to the relief of Donald and Daffy Duck. However, they better stay out of Great Britain as they still allow Punt Guns so long as the bore isn’t over 1.75” in diameter. This can still put a big hole in a little duck.

The Third In The Max Fly, Private Eye Series Is At The Publisher



Soon Blue Magic will be available to Max’s adoring public online and at your favorite bookstores as well as in the trunk of my car.

It’s 1960 and America is embarking on a new decade that will lay the foundation of change and turmoil on the American landscape. But one thing still remains greed and corruption and all that goes with it. Max Fly teams up with his free-wheeling partner, Hap Schultz, to assist Max’s long-time friend, Homicide Detective, Harry Marshall, in solving three murders in the beer capital of the world, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. His investigation leads him to Atlanta, Georgia and into the underbelly of crime and corruption. Of course, in their free time along the way, Hap and Max lend their expertise and provide much-needed comfort to the sexually frustrated women they meet while dispensing with the distasteful and defective elements of society.


“The police knew who did it, but didn’t have enough evidence to arrest him.
“I asked her if she would like to get revenge on the low life bastard. She said she did.
“We found out he was from Macon, so one weekend we went down and paid him a visit. He lived in front of this cow pasture west of town off Highway 129 in a closed up gas station his family used to run. We snuck up on the place after dark. The screen door was swarming with flies. Inside, the place wreaked of stale smoke, rotten food and diesel fuel. In one corner stood a busted up cigarette machine. Above it hung a Rainbow Trout and a life-size cutout of Jayne Mansfield with an oil-stained hand imprint on her left breast. The cheap black and white linoleum floor was yellowed and stained and had chipped away against the far wall. The door to the bathroom was open and the lid to the rust stained toilet was up and dirty towels littered the floor. The mirror over the sink was cracked and dirty. An old condom machine was hanging on one corner of the wall. On the other side of the room was a counter made of cheap pine, and it bristled with splinters and rusted nail heads and an old cash register. Just the thought of that place makes me sick.
“He was sleeping in the back room on an old army cot. He was covered with a filthy sheet. A pile of soiled clothing lay by the side of the bed along with an empty Thunderbird wine bottle and a well used Playboy Magazine. He looked as filthy as the sheet and smelled worse. I never in my life saw a place as filthy as the one he was living in, not even one of the Mason’s flop houses in downtown Atlanta.

You can order your copy of this book at:

National Bison Legacy Act, H.R. 2908

Bison Skull Pile circa 1870
Bison Skull Pile
circa 1870

On May 9, 2016, President Obama signed the National Bison Legacy Act into law, officially making the American bison the national mammal of the United States. This majestic animal joins the ranks of the Bald Eagle as the official symbol of our country — and much like the eagle, it’s one of the greatest conservation success stories of all time, says the U.S. Department of Interior – or is it?

In 1971, President Nixon signed The Wild Free-Roaming Horse And Burro Act (Public Law 92-195). This act, among other things, made it a crime to harass or kill these animals on federal land; unfortunately, the very government that is supposed to be enforcing this law is the biggest offender. So, what is to say that the National Bison Legacy Act won’t turn into another feel good law that was passed to provide lip service to those who really care about preserving this national treasure? Considering our past history with the wild horse and burro, this new act sure doesn’t present much hope. Fewer than 10,000 bison remain genetically pure, according to the Buffalo Field Campaign, and most of these exist within fenced areas that prevent them from doing what bison are meant to do, which is roam. Just as with the wild horses and burros, our government continues to mismanage the wild bison. They are quarantined and slaughtered in the interest of livestock ranchers; and, for some reason, ranchers believe, without any scientific basis, that bison poses a disease threat to cattle. They fear the spread of Brucellosis. What? These very same cattlemen are responsible for Brucellosis being here in the first place.

What is Brucellosis? In 1886 David Bruce a British army surgeon isolated a cocco-bacillus that he named Micrococcus melitensis. This disease was endemic but confused with other diseases, especially malaria. The human disease was associated with people who consumed goat milk and had other close contact with goats. The organism soon was isolated from these animals. In 1897 a similar microbe was isolated from the udder of cows, and in 1914 from swine. In about 1920 the genus was renamed Brucella. The disease has had numerous names, with “undulant fever” becoming predominant in the United States until the 1940s, when it began to be called Brucellosis.

So, Brucellosis was introduced to the US via European livestock in the early 1900’s. It was first detected in the Yellowstone Buffalo herd in 1917. The buffalo were exposed to Brucellosis by domestic cattle that were grazed in the park and held in confinement with buffalo. The chances of transmission between wild buffalo and vaccinated domestic cattle have been characterized as “very low”. but still, the cattlemen blame the bison, as well as the elk, for transmission of Brucellosis that they were responsible for by introducing this disease in the first place. Of course, that makes sense.

Now, one hundred years later, the states and federal government are embroiled in litigation on how best to control the disease and keep it from decimating herds of wildlife and domestic cattle. And what about the wild swine?

Feral pig populations are exploding across the country. These pigs reproduce like rabbits. We, the people, are partially responsible for the population boom. There is strong evidence that humans have transported feral pigs into new areas for hunting. I can attest to this happening in the North Georgia mountains. A few years back I confronted one while riding at Pine Log Wildlife Management Area. Both my horse and I about had heart attacks. They are mean looking animals and they stink and they carry the Brucellosis disease. Research indicates that about 70 percent of the population will need to be removed each year to keep a wild population stable. Regarding feral pigs, hunting usually removes from 8 to 50 percent of a given wild population so we have a lot of filthy pigs running loose thanks to our cattlemen.

So, like most everything else that is left up to this rogue bureaucratic federal agency, the Department of Interior, I’m afraid this National Bison Legacy Act is just another federal program passed to appease the public and provide a “legacy” for this president, not the bison.

Some of the information gathered for this blog was obtained from the Buffalo Field Campaign and from Brucellosis Therapy: A Historical Overview
Thomas Benedek, University of Pittsburgh.

For more information regarding mismanagement of the bison, go to



Flamingo, Florida, An Everglade’s Ghost Town


Americans have always been fascinated by ghosts towns. A town often becomes a ghost town because its economy fails, or due to some form of disaster. Ghost towns exist in America from Montana to the southern tip of Florida.

In 1889, a fisherman by the name of George Elliot Cuthbert was looking for “a flower, a beautiful white blossom,” as he told his children. What he found was thousands of snowy egrets, ibises, wood storks, tricolored herons, and the circus-colored roseate spoonbill in what was to become known as Cuthbert’s Rookery. A rookery is a breeding ground for exotic birds. Cuthbert was after the egrets’ head plumage. Around this time, these feathers were worth $32 an ounce—double the price of gold. The ensuing mass slaughter of these birds was only matched by the mass slaughter of America’s bison in the West.

Flamingo, Florida, was settled near Cuthbert’s Rookery, in 1892. It consisted of 38 shacks on stilts. Duncan Brady, from New England, was one of the first residents. The Tequesta Indians had lived in the area prior to that, but that doesn’t count. The town received the name Flamingo in 1893 when a post office was established. In the late 1800’s, flamingos could be seen along the coast in large numbers. Life in the Everglades could be rough going. Naturalist Leverett White Brownell, who visited Flamingo in 1893, described a village infested with fleas and mosquitos. He claimed to have seen an oil lamp extinguished by a cloud of mosquitos. He also stated that flea powder was the “staff of life” and that the cabins were thickly sooted from the use of smudge pots. Flamingo experienced a small boom in the early 20th century when speculators thought that Henry Flagler would choose a route for his Florida East Coast Railway across Florida Bay to Key West. By 1900 about 50 families lived there and it had a school. Fishing, farming, charcoal making and plume hunting (hunting exotic birds for their feathers) were the area’s economy. Plume hunting brought people to Flamingo but also led to its downfall. Audubon warden Guy Bradley was killed in 1905 by plume hunters near the town. Public outrage over the murder directly led to federal legislation outlawing the practice of plume hunting. People figured if they couldn’t kill the birds, why go to Flamingo? So they didn’t. The post office closed in 1909 and soon only three houses remained occupied. During prohibition, outlaw moonshiners brought Flamingo back to life. But it wasn’t meant to be. When Everglades National Park was created in 1947, Flamingo, Florida became part of the park. Today, nothing much remains of this booming metropolis, located on the eastern end of Cape Sable on the southern tip of the Florida peninsula, except a few building foundations and – ghosts!

Sky Dogs – A Blackfoot Legend As told by He-Who-Loves-Horses

Shawnee meets shaman - Version 2


One of the major misconceptions about Indians is that they were  a race of horsemen. The Indians of the Southwest region were the Indians that were first mounted on horses, in the early 1600s. And in this region, the Navajo, Apache, and Comanche were tribes regarded as being  mounted.
The favorite of the 1950’s television and western movies was the Apache, and they were actually regarded as very poor horsemen. They enjoyed eating them as much as riding them and they usually fought their battles on foot.
The Comanche and other Plains tribes were horse-oriented tribes the movies in Hollywood depicted. Most of those tribes didn’t get the horse until the mid to late 1700s.
The Navajo raised domestic animals for meat and clothing. They employed their ponies for tending sheep and cattle as they were pastoralists and herdsmen.
It was thought that for thousands of years the Indian survived without the horse. It was only after the white man introduced the horse to the Indian that they began to use them in any sense.
However, archeologists today think the horse originated on the North American continent and migrated to Asia about 20,000 years ago and became extinct on the North American Continent.
Most Indian tribes say their tribe has always been here, so who can say whether or not their ancestors didn’t have a relationship with the horse more than 20,000 years ago, long before the white men reintroduced them to this continent?

So, here is the story…


When the horses first appeared to the Blackfeet people, they thought the strange animals were dogs sent as a gift from the sky from Old Man, creator of all things.

A long, long time ago we had to walk and walk from sky to sky, from camp to camp. Our dogs carried our rawhide bags and pulled our travois sleds. We walked so much that we wore out many moccasins going across the plains.
All of a sudden, one day, coming from Old Man’s sleeping room, west of the mountains, we saw some strange looking beasts. They were as big as elk and they had tails of straw. Lying across the backs of these beasts were two Kutani men. One beast was pulling a travois sled. We became afraid because we did not understand.
My best friend, Jumps-Over-the-Water hid behind his mother’s skirt. The bravest of all of us known as Running Bear ran behind the nearest tipi to hide. I was so frightened I could not move. I was away from the safety of my father’s tipi. The men in our tribe yelled that we were not to be afraid – that we were the mighty Piegans who took the land away from the Kutani.
As I looked around I saw that they were afraid. They all had big eyes and four of them had their hunting bows aimed.
Then our chief Long Arrow laughed. He said, “These are from Old Man. They are a gift like the elk, antelope, buffalo and bighorn sheep they are called Sky Dogs”.
Now Long Arrow was very smart because he had walked around the Earth seven times from the Porcupine Hills down to the mouth of the Yellowstone. Everyone became quiet and trusted his knowledge. We waited for the Sky Dogs to reach our camp. We waited bravely with our sacred herb, nawak’osis, ready for smoking.
When they reached our camp we saw that there were two Kutani men and a Kutani woman in the travois sled. We took the three ill Kutani in but the medicine man could do nothing for the men. They died before they could tell us about the Sky Dogs and how they came to be from Old Man.
We took care of the beasts. We fed them dried meat as we fed our dogs. We threw sticks to make them fetch. One Sky Dog ran away. Some say he went back to Old Man. Some say that the coyote got him. The two that stayed showed us they like to eat grass.
Running Bear came away from his tipi and Jumps-Over-the-Water left his mother’s skirt. No one was afraid anymore.
I went up to the smallest Sky Dog. I touched him gently from hoof to mane. I felt his soft, warm skin. He did not flicker. He did not move. I pressed my face close against his face. He still did not move. Long Arrow smiled at me and gave me the name- He-Who-Loves-Horses.
The Kutani woman grew well, married my father and we lived in the tipi as a family. She sang to us the story of the Sky Dogs and her people. I learned how to mount and to comb the mane with a bone comb. And I learned how to ride into battle.
From this, I earned a place in the Council of Warriors.

Unsolved: The Masked Marvel Murder Mystery



The original Masked Marvel’s  secret identity was never revealed. He fought crime with the help of a trio of assistants known as ZL, ZR, and ZY. He operated out of a glass-domed mountaintop headquarters. He had a number of gadgets and weapons, such as an amphibious airplane, a paralyzing ray gun and a televisor, a video device which let him see anywhere in the world.The Masked Marvel debuted in 1939, on the pages of Keen Detective Funnies #7. Keen Detective Funnies, for some reason, began with Vol. 1 #8 (July 1938). The character continued to appear as the feature in Keen Detective Funnies until the 24th issue.

My maternal grandfather’s cousin, Gunard Hjerstedt, whose pen name was Day Keene, wrote noir detective novels, as well as the scripts for many radio soap operas, one of which was Kitty Keene, Inc., a female private eye, that ran from 1937-1941, published the Keen Detective Funnies. Okay, he didn’t have anything to do with the Keen Detective Funnies. The question is, though, who was the Masked Marvel? A better question would be, whatever happened to the Masked Marvel? First of all, the man who played the Masked Marvel was the son of Massachusetts Lt. Governor, Gaspar Bacon. His grandfather was Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt and Ambassador to France during the Taft administration. His name was David Bacon and evidently someone copped his bacon. His life came to an end on September 13, 1943, when he weaved his Austin sedan  down Washington Blvd. in Venice, CA, just missing a telephone pole before jumping the curb near the corner of Thatcher St. and plowing into a bean field. He stumbled out of the car wearing nothing but a swimsuit and he collapsed and died. A knife wound was discovered in his back. Witnesses to the  crash claimed to have seen a passenger in the car. Two others claimed to have seen a man and a woman. The Masked Marvel was only 29 years old.

A crucial clue was left behind at the crash scene. A camera that was found inside Bacon’s car. The film in the camera was developed to reveal one picture of Bacon nude smiling on the beach and it’s been theorized that the photo was taken by his killer. Prior to his death, Bacon had told his wife—an Austrian cabaret singer named Greta Keller—that he was going for a swim. Shortly before the murder, Bacon was spotted driving around with another man in his car, and it was later discovered that Bacon had recently rented a house for a male friend whose identity was never established. Keller has always alleged that her husband was a closet homosexual and had an affair with Howard Hughes, the man who originally discovered him. However, none of these claims have ever been substantiated. Bacon’s killer was never caught, The Masked Marvel Murder Mystery remains unsolved. Today, all files pertaining to the case have been destroyed.

His assistants, ZL, ZR, and ZY were never seen nor heard from again(just kidding, here).

Where Is Jane Fonda When You Need Her?

Shot down and captured in 1965.
Shot down and captured in 1965. Captain David Hrdlicker


Vietnam War – What’s Disgusting Is Our Government’s Inaction After 1975.

As our government argues about transgender toilets, we have some GIs from the Vietnam War unaccounted for.

It has been over forty years since the end of the Vietnam War and over 21,000 reports of American prisoners, missing and otherwise unaccounted for have been received by our government. Many of these reports document live American Prisoners of War remaining captive throughout Southeast Asia. According to news writer, Sidney Schanberg, there have been 1,600 firsthand live sightings of American
prisoners after the war.

A photograph was taken by a US spy satellite in 1988, fifteen years after the US had ended its involvement in the war. It showed etched into a rice paddy, an enormous sign that contained the words ‘USA’ as well as a highly classified code, a ‘Walking K’ which would have only been known to US servicemen. It was built to be seen from the air, the ‘USA’ figures measuring 37.5 feet wide and 12.5 feet long.

You can go to this website to see the years of frustration the wife of a POW, Captain David Hrdlicka, has endured as she attempted to receive word on the fate of her husband,  a POW. He was  seen alive in a picture being led around by the Pathet Lao near Sam Neua, Laos. The last known National Archive document indicating that he was alive – 1990 according to his wife.

Due to the public’s demand to end the war, delayed release of the known POWs was not a risk that the administration decision makers were likely to take. No one informed the Congress or the American people that there were captives that had not been released from Southeast Asia and the country turned its back on the POWs in Laos. As the years passed from 1973, the fate of these individuals seemingly became less and less important. (Don Moody

Schanberg said,”But behind the scenes, President Nixon accused Hanoi of not returning a multitude of prisoners. In a private message on Feb. 2, 1973, Nixon said U.S. records showed 317 prisoners in Laos alone. “It is inconceivable,” he wrote, “that only 10 of these men” were being returned.
Hanoi stonewalled and never added any men to its prisoner list. Yet just two months later, Nixon did an about-face and claimed proudly on national television, “all of our American POWs are on their way home.” He had to know he was telling a terrible lie.”  Sydney Schanberg won a Pulitzer Prize for his reporting on the war in Indochina.

American servicemen in Vietnam were called upon to operate in dangerous circumstances and they were prepared to be wounded, killed or captured. It’s doubtful they thought they could be abandoned by the country they so proudly served.


When Detroit Surrendered to a foreign army

Detroit IIDetroit

Detroit has the distinction of being a city with nothing left to plunder because its political leaders have already laid it to waste, as is apparent by looking at the decay and dissolution of the city. Well,  Detroit was plundered for the first time in the Siege of Detroit, also known as the Surrender of Detroit. This battle gave Detroit the distinction of being the only U.S. city to surrender to a foreign army. It happened when it went by the name of Fort Detroit and even that name didn’t save it from defeat because it suffered from extremely poor leadership, leadership that would rival its managers of the last fifty years. This surrender happened on August 16,1812, and a drunken sot by the name of General William Hull  ordered his troops to hold their fire while he was hunkering down in a shelter, safe from enemy fire. Unfortunately for Fort Detroit, the Shawnee Indians were lead by a very formidable leader by the name of Tecumseh, who also possessed much wisdom. He said, “So live your life that the fear of death can never enter your heart”. He also had a pretty good rapport with a British General by the name of Isaac Brock, who led his British troops from Canada to Detroit. If General Hull would have crawled out of his hole long enough to observe what was happening, he would have realized that he had twice as many troops as the Indians and British combined. Instead, he waved a white tablecloth as a sign of truce and sent officers out to “accept the best terms which could be obtained.” It was surrender!

So the question people have is, “why did we want it back?”


Oh, the Detroit Lions have never won a Super Bowl.

The Effects of PZP on Wild Horses


This report was completed by Marybeth Devlin on December 24, 2015. Copyright Marybeth Devlin and Protect Mustangs 2015.

With all these facts done by reputable and qualified people… why does the BLM keep using it or is allowed to?
The fact that women can not administer this without being protected by cautionary clothing or their ovaries will no longer be of use (in plain language ) should make it unusable on our wild horses. Also not to be around or used by pregnant women is pretty scary. It affects the fetus. In horses, it is used on pregnant mares. The fillies can not reproduce. Joan Meeker

It was stated that ‘others (risks)included the potential to jump to other animals or even humans.’
For more about the antigen and its potential to shift between species

PZP — The Pesticide

Porcine zona pellucida (PZP aka ZonaStat-H or Native PZP) is an EPA-registered pesticide derived from the ovaries of slaughtered pigs. PZP is approved for use on wild horses “in areas where they have become a nuisance ….”

Some persons argue that, because PZP does not kill the mare, it is not really a “pesticide.” Actually, PZP does kill. Its use is associated with stillborn foals. In the long term, PZP will weaken a herd immunologically, which could swiftly lead to its extinction. So, yes, PZP is a real pesticide.

PZP’s True Mode-of-Action

So how does PZP really work? PZP tricks the immune system into waging war on the ovaries. ” Thus, PZP’s antibodies “work” not by blocking sperm attachment but by destroying the ovaries.

The manufacturer of PZP as well as Bureau of Land Management (BLM)  ignored or disregarded any information that was contrary to their personally-preferred but obsolete and false description of PZP’s mode-of-action.

PZP Manufacturer’s Own Research Found Markedly Depressed Estrogen Secretion

Despite personally discovering negative hormonal impacts 23 years ago, PZP’s manufacturer continued to cite misinformation regarding the product’s mode-of-action and endocrine-disruptor side-effects.

PZP’s Destructive Antibodies Are Transmitted via the Placenta and Mother’s Milk

It gets worse. PZP antibodies are transferred from mother to young via the placenta and milk. These findings were disclosed in 1981. PZP’s manufacturer must have known about this dangerous effect, and certainly BLM should have investigated on its own whether there was any risk to the unborn or the nursing foal. Yet, the manufacturer continued to insist that there was no danger to the foal, whether born or unborn. The BLM regularly administers PZP to pregnant and lactating mares, who transfer the destructive antibodies to their fetus, via the placenta, and to their foal, via mother’s milk.

Recall again the Pryor Mountain fillies. If their dams were injected with PZP while pregnant or nursing, such fillies will already have PZP antibodies cross-reacted with and bound to their zonae. Therefore, when those same fillies are injected at age 1½, it will be their second treatment, or potentially even their third. In fact, they could already have been sterilized in utero or while nursing, the treatment having been received prior to puberty.